Benchmark

Listed below are the public results on the three benchmark datasets. The localization results are reported as the percentage of query images which where localized within three given translation and rotation thresholds, for each condition.

Aachen Day-Night dataset

Localization thresholds:

  • All conditions: (0.25m, 2°) / (0.5m, 5°) / (5m, 10°)
MethoddaynightLast updated
Hierarchical Localization - SuperPoint + SuperGlue89.6 / 95.4 / 98.886.7 / 93.9 / 100.0July 19, 2020, 5:12 p.m.
KAPTURE-R2D2-FUSION89.4 / 96.4 / 99.284.7 / 92.9 / 98.0Sept. 1, 2020, 6:22 a.m.
hloc-test89.3 / 96.0 / 98.884.7 / 93.9 / 100.0Aug. 26, 2020, 2:03 a.m.
hloc89.3 / 95.9 / 98.885.7 / 92.9 / 100.0July 27, 2020, 8:11 a.m.
RLOCS88.8 / 95.4 / 99.085.7 / 93.9 / 100.0Sept. 18, 2020, 10:12 a.m.
hloc89.3 / 96.0 / 98.584.7 / 91.8 / 100.0July 24, 2020, 2:36 a.m.
ONavi85.7 / 93.7 / 98.981.6 / 91.8 / 100.0June 3, 2020, 2:49 a.m.
KAPTURE-R2D2-APGeM88.7 / 95.8 / 98.881.6 / 88.8 / 96.9July 29, 2020, 12:28 p.m.
Visual Localization Using Dense Semantic 3D Map And Hybrid Features90.3 / 95.5 / 97.964.3 / 84.7 / 99.0May 25, 2020, 6:26 a.m.
megpoint_pair_oanet87.4 / 93.9 / 97.784.7 / 90.8 / 99.0Aug. 19, 2020, 1:26 a.m.
NetVLAD (top-20) & D2-Net - multi-scale84.8 / 92.6 / 97.584.7 / 90.8 / 96.9Nov. 1, 2019, 9:49 a.m.
spd2ms88.2 / 93.2 / 97.080.6 / 88.8 / 95.9April 22, 2020, 8:44 a.m.
rkpd2m_5k87.7 / 93.7 / 97.082.7 / 88.8 / 96.9April 22, 2020, 8:45 a.m.
Geometric Prior Guided Camera Localization86.0 / 92.8 / 97.675.5 / 83.7 / 96.9March 1, 2020, 10:15 a.m.
25685.0 / 92.8 / 96.876.5 / 88.8 / 99.0July 7, 2020, 11:55 a.m.
r2d2night85.7 / 92.6 / 96.676.5 / 88.8 / 96.9June 21, 2020, 1:25 p.m.
40k85.2 / 92.5 / 96.775.5 / 89.8 / 99.0July 1, 2020, 2:02 p.m.
40k-th85.7 / 92.2 / 96.774.5 / 87.8 / 99.0July 7, 2020, 11:55 a.m.
51285.7 / 92.6 / 96.874.5 / 86.7 / 99.0July 25, 2020, 2:33 p.m.
pyconv85.7 / 93.1 / 96.576.5 / 87.8 / 96.9Aug. 10, 2020, 12:38 p.m.
Hierarchical Localization - SuperPoint85.4 / 93.3 / 97.275.5 / 86.7 / 92.9July 19, 2020, 9:11 p.m.
256oanets85.3 / 92.2 / 96.579.6 / 88.8 / 98.0Aug. 4, 2020, 5:55 a.m.
deeppoint85.2 / 92.8 / 96.278.6 / 84.7 / 98.0Aug. 10, 2020, 12:37 p.m.
GO_r2d2_best84.2 / 92.6 / 97.077.6 / 87.8 / 96.9May 24, 2020, 4:15 p.m.
20k85.6 / 92.2 / 96.775.5 / 84.7 / 99.0June 29, 2020, 10:13 a.m.
spconv85.4 / 92.8 / 96.678.6 / 86.7 / 96.9Aug. 10, 2020, 12:38 p.m.
256oanet84.3 / 92.0 / 96.275.5 / 88.8 / 98.0Aug. 3, 2020, 1:06 a.m.
RT_AP_IR+CRBNet76.2 / 93.0 / 98.966.3 / 86.7 / 96.9March 6, 2020, 2:37 a.m.
D2-net84.3 / 91.9 / 96.275.5 / 87.8 / 95.9May 22, 2020, 8:54 a.m.
25684.3 / 92.1 / 96.271.4 / 87.8 / 93.9Aug. 3, 2020, 1:07 a.m.
UP_RD2_NV84.7 / 92.1 / 96.672.4 / 82.7 / 88.8April 16, 2020, 9:56 a.m.
GO_R2D282.9 / 90.2 / 95.877.6 / 87.8 / 96.9May 20, 2020, 2:05 a.m.
d2-net-night81.6 / 90.4 / 96.075.5 / 86.7 / 100.0June 21, 2020, 1:37 p.m.
superpointnight83.4 / 91.7 / 95.677.6 / 81.6 / 92.9June 21, 2020, 1:24 p.m.
DenseVLAD (top-50) & D2-Net - multi-scale83.1 / 90.9 / 95.574.5 / 85.7 / 90.8Nov. 1, 2019, 9:49 a.m.
UR2KID (global: ur2kid-top40, local: ur2kid)81.6 / 89.1 / 94.376.5 / 84.7 / 95.9June 18, 2020, 5:34 p.m.
ONavi-H77.7 / 89.0 / 95.868.4 / 86.7 / 96.9Sept. 24, 2019, 9:31 a.m.
Fine_NV_SP81.1 / 89.4 / 95.571.4 / 80.6 / 91.8April 6, 2020, 2:56 p.m.
Dynamic retrieval and pre-clustering for hfnet-mv3_m:80n:1078.3 / 87.7 / 93.869.4 / 80.6 / 92.9Aug. 23, 2020, 8:33 a.m.
Hierarchical-Localization NetVLAD+SuperPoint80.5 / 87.4 / 94.268.4 / 77.6 / 88.8June 1, 2019, 9:50 a.m.
Hierarchical-Localization (multi-camera when available)80.5 / 87.4 / 94.268.4 / 77.6 / 88.8June 2, 2019, 6:55 a.m.
HF_SG_4096_nv_50_sp76.5 / 85.9 / 94.167.3 / 80.6 / 96.9July 11, 2020, 11:55 a.m.
Fine_GeM_SP78.5 / 87.3 / 93.867.3 / 80.6 / 86.7April 9, 2020, 11:41 a.m.
IR30+ML77.1 / 90.5 / 97.566.3 / 76.5 / 92.9Aug. 2, 2019, 12:31 p.m.
HF_SG_4096_nv_50_sp76.5 / 85.9 / 94.165.3 / 81.6 / 94.9July 17, 2020, 11:35 a.m.
Dynamic retrieval and pre-clustering for hfnet-mv377.9 / 87.1 / 93.167.3 / 78.6 / 88.8July 24, 2020, 1:47 a.m.
Dynamic retrieval and pre-clustering for hfnet-mv3_m:40n:1077.9 / 87.1 / 93.167.3 / 78.6 / 88.8Aug. 23, 2020, 8:33 a.m.
HF_DCE76.5 / 85.9 / 94.162.2 / 78.6 / 93.9July 11, 2020, 9:21 a.m.
HF_SG_4096_nv_5076.2 / 86.4 / 93.464.3 / 77.6 / 96.9July 5, 2020, 4:37 a.m.
Visual Localization Using Sparse Semantic 3D Map71.8 / 91.5 / 96.858.2 / 76.5 / 90.8June 2, 2019, 4 a.m.
DenseVLAD & D2-Net (top-20)80.1 / 88.0 / 93.466.3 / 75.5 / 84.7Oct. 31, 2019, 12:58 a.m.
ALL_NV_SP79.6 / 87.1 / 93.864.3 / 75.5 / 88.8April 3, 2020, 10:42 a.m.
HF_SG_4096_nv76.5 / 86.0 / 93.065.3 / 76.5 / 92.9July 3, 2020, 9:25 a.m.
d2-net-ydb69.9 / 77.4 / 84.577.6 / 84.7 / 93.9June 21, 2020, 1:34 p.m.
SuperPoint + SuperGlue0.0 / 0.0 / 0.079.6 / 90.8 / 100.0March 18, 2020, 3:14 p.m.
d2net5190.0 / 0.0 / 0.079.6 / 89.8 / 100.0May 19, 2020, 12:32 p.m.
R2D2_40K0.0 / 0.0 / 0.076.5 / 90.8 / 100.0May 18, 2020, 4:15 p.m.
PoseDesc+SuperPoint kp0.0 / 0.0 / 0.082.7 / 87.8 / 100.0March 13, 2020, 5:34 p.m.
ASLFeat (10k) + OANet0.0 / 0.0 / 0.077.6 / 89.8 / 100.0March 20, 2020, 4:57 a.m.
R2D2 V2 20K0.0 / 0.0 / 0.075.5 / 90.8 / 100.0May 18, 2020, 4:14 p.m.
ASLFeatV2 (10k)0.0 / 0.0 / 0.081.6 / 87.8 / 100.0July 20, 2020, 3:54 a.m.
CA-R2D20.0 / 0.0 / 0.078.6 / 88.8 / 100.0May 27, 2020, 4:47 a.m.
deeppoint_oanet0.0 / 0.0 / 0.079.6 / 88.8 / 99.0Aug. 17, 2020, 8:06 a.m.
sd2ss_zoo4cro_supersc_p20.0 / 0.0 / 0.074.5 / 88.8 / 100.0May 24, 2020, 7:24 p.m.
Dynamic retrieval and pre-clustering for hfnet-mv3_m:40n:577.2 / 84.8 / 92.667.3 / 77.6 / 86.7Aug. 23, 2020, 8:34 a.m.
Dynamic retrieval and pre-clustering for hfnet-mv3_m:40n:2077.4 / 86.0 / 93.163.3 / 76.5 / 85.7Aug. 23, 2020, 8:34 a.m.
sd2ss_superSC_all0.0 / 0.0 / 0.077.6 / 86.7 / 100.0May 23, 2020, 11:56 a.m.
Dynamic retrieval and pre-clustering for hfnet-mv3_m:10n:1076.9 / 85.8 / 91.065.3 / 76.5 / 86.7Aug. 23, 2020, 8:32 a.m.
DFC-Net0.0 / 0.0 / 0.073.5 / 87.8 / 100.0Sept. 19, 2019, 12:56 p.m.
HF_SG76.2 / 83.6 / 90.865.3 / 78.6 / 88.8July 2, 2020, 2:09 a.m.
PoseDesc+SIFT kp0.0 / 0.0 / 0.077.6 / 86.7 / 99.0March 13, 2020, 5:35 p.m.
HFnet76.2 / 85.4 / 91.962.2 / 73.5 / 81.6June 22, 2020, 12:14 p.m.
sp4k_seedmatcher_0.10.0 / 0.0 / 0.077.6 / 86.7 / 99.0Sept. 13, 2020, 6:21 a.m.
D2-Net - single-scale0.0 / 0.0 / 0.074.5 / 86.7 / 100.0July 16, 2019, 12:21 p.m.
Dense-ContextDesc10k_upright_OANet0.0 / 0.0 / 0.075.5 / 85.7 / 100.0Feb. 27, 2020, 7:33 a.m.
D2net0.0 / 0.0 / 0.075.5 / 85.7 / 100.0July 3, 2020, 2:20 p.m.
HF_SG_409674.0 / 82.9 / 90.767.3 / 73.5 / 88.8July 2, 2020, 2:18 p.m.
HF_SG_4096_db74.0 / 82.9 / 90.767.3 / 73.5 / 88.8July 2, 2020, 2:19 p.m.
sgnet-vl0.0 / 0.0 / 0.072.4 / 85.7 / 100.0Oct. 1, 2019, 11:47 a.m.
coarse2fine73.2 / 84.5 / 92.851.0 / 68.4 / 87.8May 24, 2020, 2:03 p.m.
densecontextdesc10k_upright_mixedmatcher0.0 / 0.0 / 0.075.5 / 84.7 / 99.0July 16, 2019, 11:13 a.m.
R2D2 10k keypoints0.0 / 0.0 / 0.074.5 / 83.7 / 100.0June 17, 2019, 9:56 a.m.
Asymmetric Hypercolumn Matching47.8 / 72.2 / 91.342.9 / 59.2 / 89.8June 5, 2019, 7:28 p.m.
swnet-single0.0 / 0.0 / 0.072.4 / 88.8 / 99.0Oct. 17, 2019, 9 a.m.
UR2KID Scape Technologies (not scene specific, single scale)0.0 / 0.0 / 0.071.4 / 84.7 / 100.0June 22, 2020, 9:58 a.m.
hpf0.0 / 0.0 / 0.074.5 / 83.7 / 99.0May 25, 2020, 8:02 a.m.
D2-Net - single-scale off-the-shelf0.0 / 0.0 / 0.071.4 / 85.7 / 98.0July 16, 2019, 4:57 p.m.
r2d25190.0 / 0.0 / 0.073.5 / 84.7 / 96.9May 19, 2020, 8:48 a.m.
SOSNet+D2D0.0 / 0.0 / 0.073.5 / 83.7 / 96.9Dec. 10, 2019, 4:34 p.m.
HardNet+D2D0.0 / 0.0 / 0.074.5 / 82.7 / 95.9Dec. 10, 2019, 4:32 p.m.
Active Search v1.185.3 / 92.2 / 97.939.8 / 49.0 / 64.3April 26, 2020, 9:27 a.m.
attention 5K0.0 / 0.0 / 0.071.4 / 83.7 / 91.8July 10, 2020, 4:22 a.m.
Cascaded Parallel Filtering for Memory-Efficient Image-based Localization76.7 / 88.6 / 95.833.7 / 48.0 / 62.2July 19, 2019, 10:10 a.m.
HSC-Net71.1 / 81.9 / 91.740.8 / 56.1 / 76.5Nov. 27, 2019, 7:09 p.m.
sift_upright_8k_sg_sink0.20.0 / 0.0 / 0.070.4 / 82.7 / 96.9Sept. 18, 2020, 3:31 a.m.
rootsift_upright_8k_seedmatcher_sink0.2_256_340.0 / 0.0 / 0.068.4 / 82.7 / 96.9Sept. 18, 2020, 4:46 p.m.
Localizing Visual Landmarks for 2D matching62.4 / 71.8 / 79.935.7 / 44.9 / 54.1April 20, 2019, 5:21 p.m.
CityScaleLocalization52.3 / 80.0 / 94.329.6 / 40.8 / 56.1May 10, 2019, 2:22 p.m.
Active Search57.3 / 83.7 / 96.628.6 / 37.8 / 51.0March 13, 2019, 9 a.m.
saliency_ranking_net (multi-scale)0.0 / 0.0 / 0.069.4 / 80.6 / 88.8April 29, 2019, 2:33 p.m.
densecontextdesc10k_upright0.0 / 0.0 / 0.067.3 / 79.6 / 90.8Aug. 27, 2019, 11:11 a.m.
superpoint5190.0 / 0.0 / 0.074.5 / 78.6 / 89.8May 19, 2020, 8:44 a.m.
DGCNCCC22.9 / 49.8 / 84.714.3 / 37.8 / 79.6May 30, 2019, 10:17 a.m.
SuperPoint (baseline)0.0 / 0.0 / 0.073.5 / 79.6 / 88.8July 18, 2019, 8:24 a.m.
DELF - new model0.0 / 0.0 / 0.054.1 / 75.5 / 96.9June 12, 2019, 3:52 p.m.
HFNet0.0 / 0.0 / 0.064.3 / 75.5 / 88.8July 20, 2020, 3:11 p.m.
NetVLAD+SuperPoint top 10 (baseline)33.9 / 48.8 / 78.54.1 / 28.6 / 73.5June 1, 2019, 8:59 p.m.
contextdesc10_upright0.0 / 0.0 / 0.062.2 / 74.5 / 90.8Aug. 27, 2019, 11:10 a.m.
DELF - old model0.0 / 0.0 / 0.057.1 / 73.5 / 95.9May 21, 2019, 2:52 p.m.
HesAffNet-HardNet20.0 / 0.0 / 0.058.2 / 72.4 / 83.7May 31, 2019, 10:35 p.m.
ESAC (50 Experts)42.6 / 59.6 / 75.56.1 / 10.2 / 18.4Aug. 8, 2019, 7:14 a.m.
Upright RootSIFT (Feature Challenge Baseline)0.0 / 0.0 / 0.054.1 / 66.3 / 75.5May 2, 2019, 8:57 a.m.
ESAC (20 Experts)39.7 / 55.9 / 77.81.0 / 4.1 / 14.3Aug. 8, 2019, 7:13 a.m.
Superpoint+PQ46.2 / 65.9 / 86.50.0 / 0.0 / 0.0Sept. 17, 2019, 9:30 a.m.
ESAC (10 Experts)30.3 / 49.3 / 73.70.0 / 0.0 / 9.2Aug. 8, 2019, 7:13 a.m.
m20.0 / 0.0 / 0.031.6 / 54.1 / 69.4Nov. 14, 2019, 11:38 p.m.
ELF0.0 / 0.0 / 0.029.6 / 32.7 / 38.8May 3, 2019, 8:36 p.m.
DSAC++0.4 / 2.4 / 34.00.0 / 0.0 / 2.0Aug. 8, 2019, 7:15 a.m.
DenseVLAD0.0 / 0.1 / 22.80.0 / 1.0 / 19.4April 11, 2019, 5:43 p.m.
Localizing Visual Landmarks for Place Recognition0.0 / 0.2 / 20.80.0 / 0.0 / 17.3June 2, 2019, 10:06 p.m.
NetVLAD0.0 / 0.2 / 18.90.0 / 0.0 / 14.3May 31, 2019, 11:16 p.m.
NetVlad_NN_Pose0.0 / 0.1 / 7.00.0 / 0.0 / 4.1March 17, 2019, 11:46 a.m.
joint image segemation and depth to posenet0.0 / 0.1 / 24.90.0 / 0.0 / 0.0May 31, 2019, 11:45 a.m.
FAB-MAP0.0 / 0.0 / 4.60.0 / 0.0 / 0.0March 13, 2019, 11:54 a.m.

Aachen Day-Night v1.1 dataset

Localization thresholds:

  • All conditions: (0.25m, 2°) / (0.5m, 5°) / (5m, 10°)
MethoddaynightLast updated
KAPTURE-R2D2-FUSION90.9 / 96.7 / 99.578.5 / 91.1 / 98.4Sept. 1, 2020, 6:22 a.m.
Hierarchical Localization - SuperPoint + SuperGlue89.8 / 96.1 / 99.477.0 / 90.6 / 100.0Aug. 14, 2020, 7:35 a.m.
KAPTURE-R2D2-APGeM90.0 / 96.2 / 99.572.3 / 86.4 / 97.9Sept. 1, 2020, 6:23 a.m.
RLOCS88.8 / 95.4 / 99.074.3 / 90.6 / 98.4Sept. 24, 2020, 2:20 a.m.
RLOCS_v1.086.0 / 94.8 / 98.872.3 / 88.5 / 99.0Aug. 17, 2020, 1:43 a.m.
isrf_5k_o2s87.1 / 94.7 / 98.374.3 / 86.9 / 97.4July 29, 2020, 12:13 p.m.
SuperPoint + SuperGlue [local feature challenge]0.0 / 0.0 / 0.073.3 / 88.0 / 98.4Aug. 12, 2020, 3:42 p.m.
isrf_o2s_[local_feature_challenge]0.0 / 0.0 / 0.069.1 / 87.4 / 98.4Aug. 18, 2020, 12:40 p.m.
LISRD + SuperPoint keypoints + Adalam0.0 / 0.0 / 0.073.3 / 86.9 / 97.9Aug. 18, 2020, 9:15 p.m.
DualRC-Net 80000.0 / 0.0 / 0.071.2 / 86.9 / 97.9Aug. 12, 2020, 9:24 a.m.
R2D2_40K0.0 / 0.0 / 0.071.2 / 86.9 / 97.9Aug. 17, 2020, 5:20 p.m.
LISRD + SuperPoint keypoints0.0 / 0.0 / 0.072.3 / 86.4 / 97.4Aug. 7, 2020, 9:06 a.m.
FBpoint (single-scale, adalam)0.0 / 0.0 / 0.072.8 / 85.9 / 96.3Aug. 17, 2020, 8:28 a.m.
sp4k_seedmatcher_128_th0.2_incomplete0.0 / 0.0 / 0.072.3 / 85.3 / 97.9Sept. 14, 2020, 1:01 p.m.
test176.5 / 85.9 / 94.134.6 / 41.4 / 49.7July 11, 2020, 10:07 a.m.
FBpoint (single-scale, mutual matcher)0.0 / 0.0 / 0.071.2 / 85.9 / 95.8Aug. 11, 2020, 8:19 a.m.
DualRC-Net 20480.0 / 0.0 / 0.067.5 / 85.9 / 97.4Aug. 12, 2020, 4:19 a.m.

CMU Seasons dataset

Localization thresholds:

  • All conditions: (0.25m, 2°) / (0.5m, 5°) / (5m, 10°)
MethodurbansuburbanparkLast updated
Geometric Prior Guided Camera Localization93.5 / 96.0 / 98.381.1 / 87.6 / 94.567.1 / 76.1 / 86.1March 1, 2020, 10:14 a.m.
UniGAN(RGBS)+NV+SP92.4 / 95.0 / 98.075.9 / 82.1 / 91.056.8 / 65.1 / 81.7Jan. 20, 2020, 7:25 a.m.
Dynamic retrieval and pre-clustering for hfnet-mv392.0 / 94.9 / 97.974.6 / 82.1 / 91.656.0 / 65.4 / 81.2July 24, 2020, 1:52 a.m.
UniGAN(RGB)+NV+SP92.1 / 94.8 / 98.075.9 / 81.6 / 90.855.5 / 64.1 / 81.0Jan. 20, 2020, 7:26 a.m.
Hierarchical-Localization NetVLAD+SuperPoint91.7 / 94.6 / 97.774.5 / 81.5 / 91.354.3 / 62.5 / 79.0June 1, 2019, 9:50 a.m.
HFnet90.3 / 93.0 / 96.171.6 / 77.9 / 86.849.3 / 56.6 / 71.3July 24, 2020, 1:51 a.m.
LocalSfM (Upright RootSIFT) (has partial access to ground truth)72.8 / 74.1 / 76.155.2 / 57.7 / 61.341.8 / 44.5 / 48.7March 13, 2019, 11:42 a.m.
Semantic Match Consistency75.0 / 82.1 / 87.844.0 / 53.6 / 63.730.0 / 37.9 / 48.2March 18, 2019, 11:47 p.m.
Active Search v1.168.9 / 75.7 / 83.436.2 / 44.4 / 56.024.8 / 31.1 / 41.5Aug. 12, 2019, 6:38 a.m.
EffecientPairWise2D-3DMatching64.1 / 67.8 / 71.530.2 / 35.5 / 40.923.8 / 28.1 / 34.0March 20, 2019, 9:52 a.m.
IRUCC23.7 / 51.7 / 92.511.4 / 29.4 / 88.313.4 / 35.1 / 88.2July 10, 2020, 4:41 p.m.
DISAM(coarse2fine)22.6 / 47.3 / 89.111.1 / 27.5 / 77.612.6 / 31.3 / 80.0Sept. 17, 2020, 3:24 a.m.
DenseVLAD22.2 / 48.6 / 92.89.8 / 26.6 / 85.210.3 / 27.1 / 77.0April 15, 2019, 11:03 a.m.
DISAM(fine-only)22.7 / 46.4 / 85.411.3 / 27.2 / 71.913.2 / 32.2 / 76.9Sept. 17, 2020, 3:24 a.m.
Active Search55.2 / 60.3 / 65.120.7 / 25.9 / 29.912.7 / 16.3 / 20.8March 13, 2019, 9:04 a.m.
DISAM(coarse-only)20.1 / 45.0 / 89.99.9 / 25.6 / 78.611.3 / 29.1 / 80.1Sept. 17, 2020, 3:23 a.m.
DIFL+FCL (urban model and square-resized)20.2 / 44.7 / 87.89.7 / 25.0 / 73.711.4 / 28.9 / 76.4Sept. 25, 2019, 11:14 a.m.
DIFL+FCL20.2 / 45.0 / 87.19.1 / 23.3 / 69.310.1 / 26.4 / 74.0Sept. 25, 2019, 11:03 a.m.
NetVLAD17.4 / 40.3 / 93.27.6 / 21.0 / 80.55.6 / 15.7 / 65.8April 11, 2019, 9:16 p.m.
CityScaleLocalization36.7 / 42.0 / 53.18.6 / 11.7 / 21.17.0 / 9.6 / 17.0March 13, 2019, 11:59 a.m.
FAB-MAP2.7 / 6.4 / 27.30.5 / 1.5 / 13.60.8 / 1.7 / 11.5March 13, 2019, 11:49 a.m.

Extended CMU Seasons dataset

Localization thresholds:

  • All conditions: (0.25m, 2°) / (0.5m, 5°) / (5m, 10°)
MethodurbansuburbanparkLast updated
PFSL FGSN 200 classes (sequential localization)94.1 / 99.3 / 100.0100.0 / 100.0 / 100.097.6 / 99.9 / 99.9Nov. 4, 2019, 1:37 p.m.
Hierarchical Localization - SuperPoint + SuperGlue (multi-camera)98.1 / 99.8 / 99.998.3 / 99.5 / 100.094.2 / 97.1 / 98.5Aug. 14, 2020, 6:47 a.m.
KAPTURE-R2D2-FUSION97.0 / 99.1 / 99.895.0 / 97.0 / 99.489.2 / 93.4 / 97.5Sept. 1, 2020, 6:24 a.m.
PFSL Cityscapes classes (sequential localization)88.1 / 93.8 / 100.097.4 / 99.2 / 100.081.8 / 97.2 / 99.9Nov. 4, 2019, 1:40 p.m.
DenseVLAD & D2-Net94.0 / 97.7 / 99.193.0 / 95.7 / 98.389.2 / 93.2 / 95.0Feb. 25, 2020, 9:10 p.m.
KAPTURE-R2D2-APGeM96.7 / 98.9 / 99.794.4 / 96.8 / 99.283.6 / 89.0 / 95.5July 29, 2020, 12:31 p.m.
Hierarchical-Localization (multi-camera when available)91.6 / 96.4 / 99.184.7 / 91.5 / 98.669.3 / 77.8 / 90.5June 2, 2019, 6:55 a.m.
isrf_5k_o2s93.8 / 96.6 / 98.283.5 / 86.8 / 90.576.4 / 80.9 / 85.7July 29, 2020, 5:17 a.m.
Visual Localization Using Sparse Semantic 3D Map88.8 / 93.6 / 96.378.0 / 83.8 / 89.263.6 / 70.3 / 77.3June 2, 2019, 4 a.m.
CU-LTVL90.3 / 94.8 / 97.876.9 / 83.0 / 91.857.5 / 64.3 / 78.8Feb. 20, 2020, 9:05 a.m.
Hierarchical-Localization NetVLAD+SuperPoint89.5 / 94.2 / 97.976.5 / 82.7 / 92.757.4 / 64.4 / 80.4June 1, 2019, 9:50 a.m.
Asymmetric Hypercolumn Matching65.7 / 82.7 / 91.066.5 / 82.6 / 92.954.3 / 71.6 / 84.1June 5, 2019, 7:24 p.m.
Match Consistency with Fine-Grained Segmentations (FGSN+SSMC)85.3 / 91.0 / 94.669.5 / 76.4 / 83.751.4 / 57.6 / 65.5Aug. 20, 2019, 6:34 a.m.
Match Consistency with Fine-Grained Segmentations (GSMC-200)86.4 / 91.2 / 93.877.0 / 82.9 / 88.738.9 / 43.4 / 50.0Aug. 20, 2019, 7:44 p.m.
Localizing Visual Landmarks for 2D matching84.3 / 89.3 / 93.068.0 / 75.1 / 84.442.4 / 51.4 / 69.7April 25, 2019, 8:12 a.m.
Active Search v1.181.0 / 87.3 / 92.462.6 / 70.9 / 81.045.5 / 51.6 / 62.0April 26, 2020, 9:27 a.m.
CityScaleLocalization71.2 / 74.6 / 78.757.8 / 61.7 / 67.534.5 / 37.0 / 42.2March 8, 2019, 8:20 p.m.
Active Search73.1 / 78.0 / 80.352.6 / 59.0 / 63.933.6 / 37.8 / 41.3Dec. 19, 2019, 12:35 p.m.
LocFeatsBaseline53.1 / 62.6 / 88.640.9 / 47.6 / 76.820.4 / 26.3 / 51.3April 15, 2020, 7:12 a.m.
sgVLAD + ELF58.3 / 65.8 / 69.046.5 / 54.2 / 57.916.1 / 19.2 / 20.7May 7, 2020, 5:13 a.m.
LocFeatsPoseLossNotDone50.8 / 57.5 / 89.138.8 / 42.3 / 77.620.6 / 23.5 / 52.2April 15, 2020, 7:13 a.m.
IRUCC16.9 / 41.8 / 92.66.8 / 23.4 / 93.67.4 / 27.3 / 87.4July 10, 2020, 9:28 p.m.
DASGIL17.3 / 42.2 / 90.46.6 / 21.9 / 86.87.5 / 25.6 / 79.3July 19, 2020, 1:22 p.m.
Localizing Visual Landmarks for Place Recognition17.3 / 42.5 / 89.05.8 / 19.4 / 76.16.6 / 23.1 / 73.0June 2, 2019, 10:07 p.m.
DGCNCCC17.1 / 41.5 / 89.18.9 / 26.8 / 77.14.8 / 16.2 / 63.3June 2, 2019, 1:27 p.m.
Netvlad_localization16.4 / 38.5 / 78.98.8 / 27.1 / 77.04.7 / 16.0 / 63.2June 25, 2019, 9:44 p.m.
DIFL-FCL14.8 / 35.1 / 79.65.6 / 18.2 / 69.86.1 / 20.7 / 69.1Feb. 25, 2020, 3:24 a.m.
DenseVLAD14.7 / 36.3 / 83.95.3 / 18.7 / 73.95.2 / 19.1 / 62.0March 12, 2019, 3:21 p.m.
NetVLAD12.2 / 31.5 / 89.83.7 / 13.9 / 74.72.6 / 10.4 / 55.9June 2, 2019, 9:12 a.m.
wasabi7.9 / 21.3 / 75.23.8 / 13.9 / 67.32.4 / 9.1 / 54.5May 4, 2020, 8:20 a.m.
sgVLAD7.3 / 19.9 / 76.93.6 / 12.8 / 69.12.1 / 9.1 / 57.4May 4, 2020, 8:32 a.m.
joint image segemation and depth to posenet0.3 / 1.5 / 31.90.1 / 0.3 / 12.50.0 / 0.2 / 9.0May 31, 2019, 11:46 a.m.

RobotCar Seasons dataset

Localization thresholds:

  • All conditions: (0.25m, 2°) / (0.5m, 5°) / (5m, 10°)
Methodday allnight allLast updated
Hierarchical Localization - SuperPoint + SuperGlue55.7 / 82.0 / 97.637.7 / 71.5 / 91.1Aug. 12, 2020, 10:33 p.m.
KAPTURE-R2D2-APGeM55.1 / 82.1 / 97.328.8 / 58.8 / 89.4July 29, 2020, 12:30 p.m.
Visual Localization Using Dense Semantic 3D Map And Hybrid Features54.6 / 81.9 / 96.914.8 / 33.0 / 51.3May 26, 2020, 4:51 a.m.
RT_AP_IR+CRBNet55.3 / 81.8 / 98.511.5 / 26.5 / 39.2March 6, 2020, 2:38 a.m.
SIFT+IR50+SIG+FM+R70_85+MUL+RE3+GPNP+MERGE57.2 / 81.5 / 97.49.3 / 30.1 / 53.3Sept. 2, 2019, 2:03 a.m.
Geometric Prior Guided Camera Localization57.3 / 81.7 / 97.68.0 / 21.6 / 40.7March 1, 2020, 10:14 a.m.
DenseVLAD (top-20) & D2-Net - camera triplets53.0 / 81.5 / 96.328.6 / 50.0 / 67.5June 17, 2020, 12:46 p.m.
Visual Localization Using Sparse Semantic 3D Map54.5 / 81.6 / 96.712.3 / 28.5 / 46.5June 2, 2019, 4 a.m.
DenseVLAD & D2-Net54.5 / 80.0 / 95.320.4 / 40.1 / 55.0Oct. 31, 2019, 12:58 a.m.
Active Search v1.1 w/ pose prior, image triplets52.4 / 81.4 / 97.512.6 / 23.2 / 42.0April 10, 2020, 6:28 p.m.
ALL_NV_SP53.9 / 80.4 / 97.58.1 / 21.0 / 35.3April 9, 2020, 2:17 a.m.
S2DHM feature optimization52.8 / 80.0 / 95.234.4 / 69.7 / 94.6May 24, 2020, 12:38 p.m.
Hierarchical-Localization (multi-camera when available)53.8 / 80.4 / 96.011.2 / 27.7 / 49.1June 2, 2019, 6:54 a.m.
ToDayGan, NetVLAD, D2-Net52.2 / 80.1 / 95.920.3 / 46.8 / 73.7Dec. 12, 2019, 7:57 p.m.
Semantic Match Consistency50.3 / 79.3 / 95.27.1 / 22.4 / 45.3March 18, 2019, 11:47 p.m.
Active Search v1.1 w/ pose prior50.9 / 80.2 / 96.66.9 / 15.6 / 31.7April 26, 2020, 9:28 a.m.
superpoint52.3 / 78.9 / 94.315.9 / 37.8 / 87.8Oct. 11, 2019, 9:28 a.m.
Active Search on sequences of camera triplets (uses ground truth relative poses)46.6 / 80.1 / 97.05.8 / 21.0 / 43.1March 13, 2019, 12:03 p.m.
Hierarchical-Localization NetVLAD+SuperPoint53.1 / 79.1 / 95.57.2 / 17.4 / 34.4June 1, 2019, 9:50 a.m.
msnet53.2 / 78.4 / 96.44.0 / 11.3 / 21.3Oct. 31, 2019, 12:38 p.m.
Active Search v1.1, image triplets49.7 / 79.7 / 95.54.7 / 11.4 / 21.9April 10, 2020, 6:30 p.m.
Asymmetric Hypercolumn Matching45.7 / 78.0 / 95.122.3 / 61.8 / 94.5June 5, 2019, 7:25 p.m.
s2dhm46.4 / 77.6 / 95.130.0 / 68.8 / 94.6Oct. 11, 2019, 3:31 a.m.
Localizing Visual Landmarks for 2D matching51.1 / 77.7 / 92.313.8 / 30.3 / 57.7May 16, 2019, 2:09 a.m.
HF_DCE_de_n49.0 / 76.3 / 94.110.7 / 31.7 / 57.5July 20, 2020, 2:42 a.m.
HF_SG_4096_nv_50_sp48.5 / 75.8 / 93.79.7 / 28.8 / 55.9July 9, 2020, 12:09 p.m.
HF_DCE_de49.0 / 76.3 / 94.19.8 / 28.5 / 51.0July 11, 2020, 4:20 a.m.
HF_SG_4096_nv_50_sp48.5 / 75.8 / 93.78.8 / 25.3 / 48.4July 8, 2020, 2:05 a.m.
EffecientPairWise2D-3DMatching42.6 / 78.2 / 95.78.5 / 14.1 / 20.6March 20, 2019, 9:52 a.m.
Cascaded Parallel Filtering for Memory-Efficient Image-based Localization48.0 / 78.0 / 94.23.4 / 9.5 / 17.0July 19, 2019, 10:08 a.m.
HFnet51.6 / 76.8 / 91.43.9 / 11.7 / 18.8June 23, 2020, 6:15 a.m.
Active Seach on Camera Triplets45.5 / 77.0 / 94.72.7 / 6.9 / 12.1March 13, 2019, 9:31 a.m.
Active Search v1.143.6 / 76.0 / 94.01.8 / 7.4 / 14.2April 26, 2020, 9:28 a.m.
CityScaleLocalization45.3 / 73.5 / 90.10.6 / 2.6 / 7.2March 13, 2019, 11:59 a.m.
DM-Initial44.9 / 68.9 / 85.71.9 / 5.6 / 10.4Sept. 14, 2020, 1:48 a.m.
Active Search35.6 / 67.9 / 90.40.9 / 2.1 / 4.3March 13, 2019, 9:04 a.m.
NetVLAD+SSM(stage II)10.1 / 39.7 / 95.95.4 / 21.6 / 71.0April 24, 2020, 10:06 p.m.
SSM10.1 / 39.5 / 94.25.1 / 20.2 / 62.0April 25, 2020, 7:36 a.m.
DenseVLAD (single-scale, top-1 interpolation)9.8 / 32.8 / 90.71.8 / 6.6 / 25.6May 29, 2019, 3:27 p.m.
ToDayGAN + DenseVLAD7.6 / 31.2 / 91.22.2 / 10.8 / 50.5May 27, 2019, 8:05 p.m.
DenseVLAD (single-scale)8.1 / 31.8 / 90.71.3 / 5.7 / 25.5May 29, 2019, 1 p.m.
DenseVLAD7.6 / 31.2 / 91.21.0 / 4.4 / 22.7April 11, 2019, 5:44 p.m.
Localizing Visual Landmarks for Place Recognition7.9 / 30.0 / 85.94.1 / 15.7 / 59.1June 2, 2019, 10:07 p.m.
DenseVLAD (single scale) with CLAHE pre-processing7.4 / 30.1 / 88.70.9 / 5.0 / 25.3Aug. 23, 2019, 12:37 p.m.
DISAM(coarse-only)7.4 / 25.8 / 77.63.3 / 8.7 / 24.8Sept. 17, 2020, 3:23 a.m.
NetVLAD6.4 / 26.3 / 90.90.3 / 2.3 / 15.9June 2, 2019, 9:12 a.m.
DIFL+FCL7.6 / 26.2 / 75.92.5 / 6.5 / 15.8April 3, 2020, 3:34 a.m.
DGCNCCC7.2 / 28.3 / 87.60.0 / 1.1 / 13.4May 21, 2019, 7:38 a.m.
nearest_neighbor4.1 / 17.9 / 87.02.4 / 11.6 / 84.6Oct. 11, 2019, 9:09 a.m.
COCL_HR12.7 / 60.6 / 75.40.5 / 1.6 / 2.2May 30, 2019, 9:20 a.m.
DISAM(fine-only)8.2 / 27.0 / 62.72.1 / 4.8 / 12.1Sept. 17, 2020, 3:23 a.m.
FAB-MAP2.7 / 11.8 / 37.30.0 / 0.0 / 0.0March 13, 2019, 11:50 a.m.
joint image segemation and depth to posenet0.1 / 0.8 / 31.00.0 / 0.0 / 0.0May 31, 2019, 11:46 a.m.
baseline_8000.0 / 0.0 / 0.05.2 / 16.5 / 34.4Nov. 9, 2019, 7:12 a.m.

RobotCar Seasons v2 dataset

Localization thresholds:

  • All conditions: (0.25m, 2°) / (0.5m, 5°) / (5m, 10°)
Methodday allnight allLast updated
KAPTURE-R2D2-FUSION66.0 / 95.1 / 100.046.2 / 76.5 / 91.4Sept. 1, 2020, 6:23 a.m.
Hierarchical Localization - SuperPoint + SuperGlue (multi-camera)63.8 / 95.0 / 100.045.0 / 86.2 / 94.6Aug. 13, 2020, 12:22 p.m.
test10.0 / 0.0 / 0.00.0 / 0.0 / 0.0July 11, 2020, 10:05 a.m.

InLoc dataset

Localization thresholds:

  • All conditions: (0.25m, 10°) / (0.5m, 10°) / (1m, 10°)
Methodduc1duc2Last updated
RLOCS_v1.047.0 / 71.2 / 84.858.8 / 77.9 / 80.9Aug. 17, 2020, 1:43 a.m.
perl-nvsg+rf48.5 / 70.7 / 80.856.5 / 75.6 / 84.0June 8, 2020, 12:48 a.m.
perl-nvsg+erf+ma52.0 / 73.7 / 84.355.0 / 73.3 / 80.2June 15, 2020, 1:01 p.m.
perl-nvsg50.0 / 69.7 / 78.354.2 / 72.5 / 80.2May 21, 2020, 12:34 a.m.
Hierarchical Localization - SuperPoint + SuperGlue49.0 / 68.7 / 80.853.4 / 77.1 / 82.4Sept. 20, 2020, 8:42 p.m.
ONavi41.9 / 68.2 / 84.350.4 / 76.3 / 80.2June 3, 2020, 2:49 a.m.
DensePE+Sparse-NCNet+DensePV47.0 / 67.2 / 79.843.5 / 64.9 / 80.2May 13, 2020, 3:03 p.m.
hloc47.0 / 66.7 / 78.351.9 / 71.8 / 77.9July 30, 2020, 9:04 a.m.
Visual Localization Using Dense Semantic 3D Map And Hybrid Features48.0 / 62.6 / 79.353.4 / 64.1 / 74.8May 25, 2020, 6:26 a.m.
Hierarchical Localization - SuperPoint + SuperGlue46.5 / 65.7 / 77.851.9 / 72.5 / 79.4July 19, 2020, 5:11 p.m.
Oracle (InLoc++)43.9 / 66.2 / 78.343.5 / 63.4 / 76.3March 4, 2020, 7:47 a.m.
DensePE+NCNet+DensePV43.4 / 64.6 / 77.845.0 / 62.6 / 73.3May 13, 2020, 3:03 p.m.
D2-Net - multi-scale (210 poses) & InLoc (146 poses)42.9 / 63.1 / 75.340.5 / 61.8 / 77.9Nov. 1, 2019, 9:50 a.m.
KAPTURE-R2D2-FUSION41.4 / 60.1 / 73.747.3 / 67.2 / 73.3Sept. 1, 2020, 6:26 a.m.
DensePV+S (w/ scan-graph)40.9 / 63.6 / 71.742.7 / 61.8 / 71.0Aug. 20, 2019, 4:39 p.m.
DensePNV (w/ scan-graph)39.4 / 62.1 / 74.742.7 / 61.1 / 70.2Aug. 20, 2019, 4:51 p.m.
DensePNV+S (w/ scan-graph)40.4 / 62.1 / 73.742.7 / 61.1 / 70.2Aug. 20, 2019, 4:36 p.m.
D2-Net - multi-scale off-the-shelf (174 poses) & InLoc (182 poses)43.9 / 61.6 / 73.742.0 / 60.3 / 74.8Nov. 1, 2019, 9:50 a.m.
ncsp+densePV44.9 / 61.1 / 74.245.0 / 56.5 / 65.6June 2, 2020, 4:14 a.m.
DensePNV+S (w/o scan-graph)39.9 / 60.1 / 71.240.5 / 60.3 / 74.8Aug. 20, 2019, 4:57 p.m.
InLoc (w/ scan-graph)38.9 / 59.6 / 67.742.0 / 61.1 / 71.0Aug. 20, 2019, 4:45 p.m.
DensePV+S (w/o scan-graph)40.9 / 60.6 / 71.738.2 / 55.7 / 70.2Aug. 20, 2019, 4:47 p.m.
DensePNV (w/o scan-graph)39.9 / 58.6 / 70.740.5 / 60.3 / 74.8Aug. 20, 2019, 4:50 p.m.
Visual Localization Using Sparse Semantic 3D Map41.4 / 59.1 / 71.238.2 / 49.6 / 58.0June 2, 2019, 4 a.m.
isrf_5k_o2s39.4 / 58.1 / 70.241.2 / 61.1 / 69.5July 29, 2020, 1:57 p.m.
InLoc40.9 / 58.1 / 70.235.9 / 54.2 / 69.5April 30, 2019, 1:52 p.m.
D2-Net - multi-scale44.4 / 58.6 / 71.231.3 / 49.6 / 67.9Nov. 1, 2019, 9:50 a.m.
Hierarchical Localization - SuperPoint39.9 / 55.6 / 67.237.4 / 57.3 / 70.2July 19, 2020, 9:13 p.m.
apgem_r2d2_40k_all39.4 / 57.1 / 70.236.6 / 53.4 / 61.8July 30, 2020, 4:49 p.m.
DFC-Net42.9 / 57.1 / 69.232.1 / 51.1 / 67.2Sept. 19, 2019, 12:57 p.m.
D2-Net - multi-scale off-the-shelf42.4 / 56.6 / 66.231.3 / 50.4 / 64.1Nov. 1, 2019, 9:50 a.m.
INLOC_PE_PV40.4 / 55.6 / 68.235.9 / 46.6 / 64.9Nov. 26, 2019, 12:02 p.m.
KAPTURE-R2D2-APGeM_top20_0.1mm36.9 / 53.0 / 65.734.4 / 52.7 / 59.5Sept. 1, 2020, 6:26 a.m.
INLOC_PE_LPV37.4 / 51.0 / 63.635.1 / 46.6 / 61.1Nov. 26, 2019, 12:43 p.m.
KAPTURE-R2D2-APGeM_top20_0.5mm36.4 / 52.0 / 64.130.5 / 53.4 / 58.0Sept. 1, 2020, 6:25 a.m.
INLOC_PE34.8 / 46.0 / 59.131.3 / 39.7 / 50.4Nov. 26, 2019, 12:01 p.m.
DisLoc+SparsePE23.7 / 34.3 / 49.516.8 / 24.4 / 32.8May 30, 2019, 9:57 a.m.
IR_Q_ONE_ONE15.7 / 22.2 / 30.37.6 / 16.0 / 25.2Nov. 1, 2019, 9:53 a.m.
IRLP_Q_ONE_ONE16.2 / 21.2 / 28.36.1 / 13.7 / 16.0Nov. 14, 2019, 10:53 a.m.
IRP_Q_ONE_ONE_1_614.1 / 17.7 / 21.79.9 / 14.5 / 19.8Nov. 22, 2019, 5:30 a.m.
IRP_Q_ONE_ONE_113.6 / 17.2 / 20.27.6 / 12.2 / 15.3Nov. 22, 2019, 2:21 a.m.
IRL_Q_ONE_ONE11.1 / 16.7 / 21.27.6 / 10.7 / 15.3Nov. 14, 2019, 2:49 a.m.
DenseVLAD0.0 / 1.5 / 5.10.0 / 0.8 / 2.3April 30, 2019, 3:02 p.m.

SILDa Weather and Time of Day dataset

Localization thresholds:

  • All conditions: (0.25m, 2°) / (0.5m, 5°) / (5m, 10°)
MethodeveningsnownightLast updated
Hierarchical Localization - SuperPoint + SuperGlue (multi-camera)35.5 / 75.0 / 97.10.0 / 2.4 / 86.331.7 / 54.4 / 81.9Aug. 18, 2020, 9:31 p.m.
KAPTURE-R2D2-FUSION32.4 / 67.4 / 93.30.2 / 4.1 / 88.930.4 / 54.2 / 81.1Sept. 1, 2020, 6:26 a.m.
NetVLAD (top-50) & D2-Net - multi-scale29.6 / 67.8 / 94.86.0 / 16.4 / 72.325.6 / 51.6 / 79.9Nov. 1, 2019, 9:50 a.m.
isrf_5k_o2s31.9 / 65.2 / 87.72.9 / 14.9 / 67.830.5 / 53.8 / 78.8July 28, 2020, 11:01 a.m.
NetVLAD (top-50) & D2-Net - single-scale30.0 / 67.8 / 94.41.4 / 10.8 / 67.525.7 / 51.9 / 79.9Sept. 26, 2019, 10:28 a.m.
KAPTURE-R2D2-APGeM31.9 / 66.6 / 92.50.5 / 5.8 / 89.230.5 / 54.2 / 78.5July 29, 2020, 12:31 p.m.
NetVLAD (top-20) & D2-Net - single-scale28.1 / 66.8 / 93.51.7 / 11.1 / 67.324.4 / 49.0 / 75.7Sept. 25, 2019, 3:05 p.m.
DenseVLAD (top-50) + Colmap Image Registrator30.6 / 63.3 / 82.41.9 / 12.0 / 58.221.6 / 44.4 / 69.3Sept. 24, 2019, 8:58 a.m.
Visual Localization Using Sparse Semantic 3D Map29.4 / 66.5 / 93.42.2 / 11.1 / 57.420.4 / 41.8 / 69.0June 2, 2019, 4 a.m.
DenseVLAD (top-20) + Colmap Image Registrator28.2 / 56.2 / 71.23.1 / 9.4 / 36.816.3 / 33.4 / 50.7April 30, 2019, 12:24 p.m.
Localizing Visual Landmarks for Place Recognition0.3 / 7.1 / 41.00.0 / 0.0 / 0.90.0 / 2.7 / 56.9June 2, 2019, 10:06 p.m.
DenseVLAD0.2 / 6.2 / 42.10.0 / 0.0 / 0.70.0 / 2.6 / 53.9April 18, 2019, 12:59 p.m.

Symphony Seasons dataset

Localization thresholds:

  • All conditions: (0.25m, 2°) / (0.5m, 5°) / (5m, 10°)
Methodwinter overcastspring sunspring overcastautumn overcastLast updated